The differences between Charles and Boyle’s law provide insight into the principles of gas behavior. Charles’ law states that temperature is directly proportional to volume, while Boyle’s law states that pressure and volume are inversely proportional. Together, these two laws explain how gases act when exposed to changes in temperature or pressure.

What is Charles law?

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Picture of a hot air balloon

In chemistry and physics, Charles’ law (also known as the law of volumes) is an ideal gas law that describes how gases tend to expand when heated. At constant pressure, the volume of a gas increases or decreases by the same factor as its temperature changes. This relationship is represented by the equation:

V∝T

or

V/T=k, where k is a proportionality constant.

This relationship between temperature and volume was first discovered experimentally by French physicist Jacques Charles in 1787. He found that for a given mass of gas, at a constant pressure, the volume was directly proportional to the absolute temperature. In 1802, French chemist Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac made a similar discovery and published his results in the journal Annales de chimie et de physique. He found that for a given mass of gas, at a constant pressure, the volume was directly proportional to the absolute temperature. However, it wasn’t until 1811 that Scottish physicist Robert Boyle put forth the definitive statement of this relationship in his paper “On the Absolute Zero of Temperature”:

At any given temperature, say 100° Fahrenheit, there will be some definite relation between the volume occupied by a fixed quantity of air and its pressure; so that if we could only find what those two quantities were at any other assigned temperatures say at 50° Fahrenheit or 150° Fahrenheit we should know their relation for all temperatures…

What is Boyle’s law?

Boyle’s law is a gas law that states that at a constant temperature, the volume of a gas is inversely proportional to its pressure. This means that if the pressure on a gas is increased, its volume will decrease, and if the pressure is decreased, its volume will increase, assuming the temperature remains constant. The law is named after Robert Boyle, an Irish scientist who first described it in the mid-17th century.

The difference between Charles law and Boyle’s law

Charles’s law and Boyle’s law are two fundamental gas laws that describe the behavior of gases under different conditions. The key difference between the two laws is the factors that they hold constant.

Boyle’s law describes the relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas, while holding the temperature constant. Specifically, it states that if the temperature of a gas is held constant, the pressure of the gas is inversely proportional to its volume. This means that if the pressure of a gas is increased, its volume will decrease proportionally, and if the pressure is decreased, its volume will increase proportionally.

On the other hand, Charles’s law describes the relationship between the volume and temperature of a gas, while holding the pressure constant. Charles’s law states that if the pressure of a gas is held constant, the volume of the gas is directly proportional to its temperature. This means that if the temperature of a gas is increased, its volume will also increase proportionally, and if the temperature is decreased, its volume will decrease proportionally.

In summary, while Boyle’s law describes the relationship between pressure and volume of a gas while holding temperature constant, Charles’s law describes the relationship between volume and temperature of a gas while holding pressure constant.

How to use Charles law and Boyle’s law?

Charles law states that the volume of a given mass of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature, provided the pressure remains constant. In other words, V ∝ T or V/T = k, where k is a proportionality constant.

Boyle’s law states that the pressure and volume of a gas are inversely proportional, provided the temperature remains constant. In other words, P ∝ 1/V or P/V = k, where k is a proportionality constant.

To use Charles law, you need to know the relationship between temperature and volume for a given mass of gas at a constant pressure. This can be determined by measuring the volume of the gas at two different temperatures and solving for the proportionality constant. Once you have determined the value of k, you can use it to calculate the volume of the gas at any other temperature.

Here’s an example: let’s say you have a sample of nitrogen gas with a volume of 1 liter at 0°C. You want to know what its volume will be at 20°C. From Charles law we know that V/T = k, so we can rearrange this equation to solve for k: k = V/T. In our case, k = 1 liter/0°C = 1 liter/273 K (the absolute temperature scale). Now that we know the value of k, we can plug it into the equation V = kT to calculate the volume of nitrogen gas

Boyle’s law states that the volume of a gas is inversely proportional to its pressure when temperature is held constant. In other words, when the pressure on a gas increases, its volume decreases. This relationship between pressure and volume can be represented by the equation:

PV = k

where P is the pressure of the gas, V is its volume, and k is a constant.

Boyle’s law can be used to determine the volume of a gas at a given pressure or the pressure of a gas at a given volume. It can also be used to calculate the amount of gas that will be produced when a certain volume of liquid is evaporated at a given temperature and pressure.

What is a real life example of Boyle’s law?

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Picture of scuba divers O2 tanks

Boyle’s law is often demonstrated in scuba diving. The air in a scuba diving tank decreases in volume as the diver descends deeper and deeper underwater. This happens because the pressure on the air inside the tank increases with depth. The decrease in volume causes an increase in pressure, which is why a scuba diver needs to be careful not to descend too quickly.

A real life example of Boyle’s law can also be seen in tires. When a tire is inflated, the air inside it exerts pressure on the walls of the tire. If the tire is punctured, the air will escape and the tire will deflate.

What is a real life example of Charles law?

In simple terms, Charles’ law states that the volume of a gas is proportional to its absolute temperature. So, if the temperature of a container of gas increases, the volume of the gas also increases. If the temperature decreases, the volume decreases. This relationship between temperature and volume is known as Charles’ law.

A real life example of Charles’ law can be seen in a balloon. As the air inside the balloon is heated, the balloon expands and becomes larger. As the air inside the balloon cools, it contracts and becomes smaller.

How does Boyle’s Law and Charles Law affect everyday life?

Boyle’s law and Charles’s law both have important practical applications in everyday life. Here are a few examples:

Boyle’s Law: Boyle’s law is relevant to many everyday situations, such as inflating a tire or a balloon. For example, when you pump air into a tire, you are increasing the pressure inside the tire, which decreases the volume of the air. Conversely, when you release air from the tire, you decrease the pressure inside the tire, which increases the volume of the air.

Charles’s Law: Charles’s law is important in many applications, such as cooking and baking. For example, when you heat a pot of water on the stove, the water molecules absorb energy and move faster, causing the volume of the water to increase. This is why the water level in the pot rises as it is heated. Similarly, when you bake a cake, the volume of the batter increases as it is heated in the oven.

Boyle’s law and Charles’s law are fundamental principles that are applicable in a wide range of everyday situations, from inflating tires and balloons to cooking and baking. Understanding these laws can help us make better decisions in our daily lives and better understand the world around us.

What are the 5 gas laws?

  1. Boyle’s Law: The pressure of a gas is inversely proportional to its volume.
  2. Charles’ Law: The volume of a gas is directly proportional to its temperature.
  3. Gay-Lussac’s Law: The pressure of a gas is directly proportional to its temperature.
  4. Avogadro’s Law: The volume of a gas is directly proportional to the number of molecules it contains.
  5. Ideal Gas Law: A combination of all the above laws, stating that the pressure, volume, and temperature of a gas are all interrelated.

Featured Image By – Ben Kerckx from Pixabay

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